Diagnosis: Hawaii Among Best in National College Affordability
College Affordability Diagnosis shows that higher education has gone from expensive to unaffordable for most American families.
News Release from Institute for Research on Higher Education
Philadelphia, Pa., April 27, 2016 — Despite having some of the most affordable colleges and universities in the country, Hawaii is falling far short of the education levels needed to meet its workforce needs. Hawaii ranked 3rd in the College Affordability Diagnosis, a state-by-state comparison of the policies that affect families’ abilities to pay for college. The study — published by the Institute for Research on Higher Education at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education (Penn GSE) — analyzes college costs in relation to family income level. The study reveals how higher education has gone from expensive to unaffordable for most low-and middle-income families.
In Hawaii, experts estimate 70 percent of jobs will require at least an associate’s degree by 2020. Only 44 percent of working-age residents had such a degree in 2014. Hawaii has done a lot to make college affordable. Its community colleges, for example, are the most affordable in the nation. But a college degree is still a massive expense for low- and middle-income students. A family earning $30,000 a year or less would have to spend 26 percent of its annual income to pay for full-time enrollment in one of those community colleges. And the state offers practically no need-based financial aid.
· Read the Hawaii report
The complete College Affordability Diagnosis — by Penn GSE’s Joni Finney, William Doyle, associate professor of public policy and higher education at Vanderbilt’s Peabody College, Patrick Callan, president of the Higher Education Policy Institute (HEPI), and HEPI senior policy analyst Darcie Harvey — shows the potentially devastating effects on America’s economy and social fabric if states and colleges fail to make meaningful changes.
The full study includes affordability diagnoses for all 50 states; a map of college affordability by census tract and legislative district; a look at how student aid has dramatically changed in the last 20 years; a snapshot of student borrowing; and recommendations for policy makers.
Among the national findings:
- Even in the best-performing states, college is less affordable than it was in 2008.
- Geography can determine opportunity. College costs, available aid, and institutional options vary widely by state, sometimes within the same region. For example, Pennsylvania is 49th in these rankings. Its neighbor Maryland is 6th.
- Financial aid doesn’t go as far as it used to. Even though more aid is available, it hasn’t kept pace with rising educational expenses.
- Most community college systems, historically an entryway into higher education, can no longer be considered an affordable option.
- Students can no longer work their way through college in most states (or most types of institutions). In many states, even full-time wages would not cover the cost of full-time attendance.
- These economic barriers are a key reason the higher education attainment gap between Whites and minorities has persisted, and in some cases grown, even as the population continues to diversify.
- Every state is projected to fall short of having enough college graduates to meet their workforce needs by 2020. In many cases, they are not even close.
Together, these findings reveal a nation that is poorly positioned for the present, much less the future. Without changes to affordability policies, the researchers warn, higher education will become another mechanism for the further stratification of America.
“This study shows how the deck is stacked against low- and middle-income Americans when it comes to paying for college,” Finney said. “Without policy changes, the data point toward a problem that will only worsen. That paints a bleak picture for millions of Americans.”
Many decisions about the real cost of college — from the sticker price to financial aid options — are made at the state and institutional levels. If the country is to get serious about making college more affordable, the researchers find, this is where policy changes will need to occur.
“State leaders can craft policies that ensure everyone who can benefit from college can go—but in too many states they have allowed college costs to rise beyond the reach of families,” Doyle said.
Institute for Research in Higher Education at Penn GSE
The Institute for Research on Higher Education (IRHE), headquartered at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education, conducts research relevant to policymakers and educational practitioners on higher education. Founded over 30 years ago, IRHE’s unique examinations of the policy forces that shape higher education, as well as the Institute’s ability to publish and disseminate new understandings of the impact of these forces, are widely respected nationally.
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