Tuesday, October 3, 2023
Hawai'i Free Press

Current Articles | Archives

Tuesday, March 8, 2016
Fitch: Hawaii debt levels are high
By News Release @ 12:09 AM :: 4348 Views :: Hawaii State Government, Hawaii Statistics

Fitch Rates Hawaii's $851MM GO Bonds 'AA'; Outlook Stable

News Release from Fitch Ratings, March 03, 2016

SAN FRANCISCO--Fitch Ratings has assigned an 'AA' rating to the following general obligation (GO) bonds of the State of Hawaii:

  • --$500,000,000 GO bonds of 2016, series FB;
  • --$25,000,000 taxable GO bonds of 2016, series FC;
  • --$6,000,000 GO refunding bonds of 2016, series FD;
  • --$182,385,000 GO refunding bonds of 2016, series FE;
  • --$137,165,000 GO refunding bonds of 2016, series FF.

The series FB and FC bonds are expected to price competitively on March 15. The series FD, FE, and FF bonds are expected to be offered via negotiated sale on March 31. The par amounts of the refunding series are subject to change.

In addition, Fitch affirms the following ratings:

  • --$5.9 billion in outstanding state GO bonds at 'AA';
  • --$20.6 million in outstanding state certificates of participation (COPs) at 'AA-'.

The Rating Outlook is Stable.


The GO bonds are general obligations of the state of Hawaii that carry the full faith and credit pledge of the state. The COPs are secured by lease payments subject to legislative appropriation.


SOUND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT: Hawaii's fiscal management practices are sound and include frequent revenue forecast updates, long-term financial planning, and a commitment to maintaining budget balance when revenues underperform. Fitch also views positively the state's commitment to building and maintaining financial reserves and prepaying long-term liabilities.

RESILIENT ECONOMY DESPITE CONCENTRATION: Hawaii's well-established tourism infrastructure underpins an economy dominated by leisure and hospitality, and there is also significant federal military exposure. Despite this concentration, the state's overall economic growth trend has proved relatively stable.

ELEVATED DEBT BURDEN: Hawaii's debt levels are high for a U.S. state government, and Fitch expects them to remain so. This largely reflects the state's direct responsibility for many functions delegated to local governments in other states, particularly K-12 education.

HIGH RETIREMENT LIABILITIES: The state's unfunded pension liability as a percentage of personal income is at the high end for U.S. states, and other post-employment benefit obligations (OPEB) are also significant. The state has prioritized addressing these liabilities through benefit and contribution reforms, including prefunding OPEB. Despite these efforts, the liability burden is expected to remain well above-average for the foreseeable future.


FISCAL MANAGEMENT: The rating is sensitive to shifts in the state's fundamental credit characteristics, particularly its prudent fiscal management.


Hawaii's 'AA' GO rating reflects the state's sound financial management practices, a concentrated but resilient economy, comparatively high debt levels for a U.S. state, and a large but manageable burden of retirement liabilities. Economic performance during the current expansion has generally been solid. State revenue growth coupled with prudent budget management has stabilized Hawaii's financial position, evidenced by strengthened reserve balances. Retirement liabilities are likely to remain high, although Hawaii has prioritized lowering the burden through benefit reforms and accelerating prefunding of obligations.

The 'AA-' rating on the COPs is linked to the state's GO rating as lease payments are subject to legislative appropriations for essential state facilities.


Hawaii's economy includes a substantial leisure and hospitality sector as well as a large governmental component, the latter reflecting a significant federal military presence. Together they accounted for nearly one third of the state's 2014 real GDP. Although subject to external shocks and broader economic cycles, the tourism sector in Hawaii is resilient and has tended to recover quickly, providing an important cornerstone for the state's economic growth.

During the current expansion the tourism industry has exhibited strong growth. Two key indicators, visitor arrivals and visitor expenditures, reached historic highs in calendar years (CY) 2014 and 2015. The state forecasts ongoing growth for CY 2016 and beyond.

Hawaii's large military presence makes it vulnerable to federal deficit reduction, although the state has benefitted from recent military consolidations and serves a strategic role that limits downside risk. The negative impact of any near-term federal cuts should be manageable given expectations of offsetting military investment.

Labor market conditions are very strong at present, having benefitted from several consecutive years of growth after the last recession. The unemployment rate of 3.2% in December 2015 was well under the 5% national rate and well below the 4% level reported by the state one year earlier.

Employment gains have continued through the current expansion. December 2015 employment is up 2.5% in Hawaii versus one year ago, and above the 2% rate for the U.S. overall. Growth picked up more recently from 2014, when employment in Hawaii for the year rose only 1.1%, versus 1.9% nationally. Hawaii surpassed its pre-recession jobs peak in August 2014 and to date has regained approximately 131% of the jobs lost in the last recession.

Personal income growth outpaced the nation for the last decade, increasing 51.7% versus 46.1% for the U.S. overall. Per capita personal income (PCPI) growth has been closer to the national trend, reflecting Hawaii's above-average population growth over that span. PCPI in 2014 equaled 100% of the U.S. level, ranking Hawaii 22nd amongst the states.


A key component of Hawaii's sound fiscal management has been its practice of setting aside resources in several reserves to protect against future fiscal uncertainties, including from economic and revenue cyclicality as well as negative shocks such as hurricanes.

Prior to the recession, the state built up a sizable cushion, with total reserves (including the general fund ending balance, the emergency and budget reserve fund-EBRF, and the Hawaii hurricane relief fund-HHRF) peaking at $786 million (16% of total general fund resources) in fiscal 2006.

During the recession, economic and revenue contraction required the state to implement corrective actions, including boosting revenues, cutting expenditures and drawing from reserves. After hitting a low in fiscal 2011 of $157 million (3.1% of general fund resources), Hawaii's commitment to rebuilding reserves has led to steady improvement. Fiscal 2015 ended with $1.1 billion in the state's reserve funds, or 16.7% of general fund revenues; together the EBRF and HHRF held $273 million.


Fiscal 2015 general fund tax revenues rose 6.8%, with increases of 5.9% and 13.9% for general excise tax (GET) and personal income tax (PIT) revenues, respectively. Expenditures, meanwhile, rose 2.2%. Fiscal 2015 general fund revenues exceeded expenditures by $163 million, with the carryover balance rising to $828 million.

Going forward, the state's council on revenues projects continued steady gains, with fiscal 2016 and 2017 general fund tax revenue rising 6.7% and 5.5%, respectively; these gains appear reasonable in Fitch's view, assuming currently favorable economic trends continue.

Meanwhile, expenditures are forecast to rise 7% in fiscal 2016 and 12% in fiscal 2017 due to the implementation of recent labor agreements and planned increases in reserves. Reserve increases include EBRF deposits of $10 million and $100 million in fiscal 2016 and 2017, respectively, and $164 million in fiscal 2017 to fully fund the state's OPEB ARC. Fitch views the state's willingness to prioritize the rebuilding of reserves and prefunding retiree obligations to be a notable credit positive for the state.


Hawaii's state government is directly responsible for many functions, such as K-12 education, that are routinely delegated to the local level in other states. Largely as a result, debt is comparatively high for a U.S. state and expected to remain so. On a pro forma basis (inclusive of $525 million in new money for the series FB and FC GO bonds), Hawaii's net tax-supported debt totaled approximately $6.7 billion, which equates to 10.3% of 2014 personal income. Principal is retired at a rapid pace, with 67% of GO principal repaid in 10 years. The vast majority of the state's debt is in GO bonds.


The state's obligations for both retiree pensions and healthcare are significant, but the state has repeatedly pursued corrective actions in recent years to reduce the liabilities over time, including devoting significant contributions to prefund OPEB.

The funded ratio of the Employees' Retirement System of the State of Hawaii (ERS), the pension system covering state and local employees, has stabilized in recent years after weakening during the downturn. Despite a recent history of making contributions near the actuarially-calculated level, the funded ratio remains low, at 62.2% on a reported basis as of June 30, 2015. Using Fitch's 7% discount rate assumption rather than the 7.65% used by the system, the ERS was only 58.1% funded. On a combined basis, net tax-supported debt and the state share of adjusted unfunded pension obligations represent a high 22.3% of personal income, among the highest of the states.

Recent pension reforms include a new tier for hires beginning in fiscal 2013, increased employer contribution rates, and a phased reduction in the discount rate to 7.5% by fiscal 2017.


The state's OPEB obligations are substantial, but have improved following statutory adoption of a pre-funding plan. As of July 1, 2015, Hawaii reported an OPEB unfunded actuarial accrued liability (UAAL) of $9.1 billion, which was down notably from the June 30, 2011 reported OPEB UAAL of over $13 billion. The improvement largely reflects the actuarial recognition of the state's statutory pre-funding plan and subsequent use of a higher discount rate assumption.

In 2013, the legislature adopted a bill requiring full funding of the OPEB ARC by fiscal 2019, including a mechanism to transfer state tax revenues if needed to ensure full contributions. The state has incorporated full ARC funding into its multi-year financial plan by fiscal 2017. Fitch views the statutory commitment to pre-funding its OPEB as a credit strength despite the near-term budgetary impact.

Additional information is available at 'www.fitchratings.com'.


PBN: Fitch rates Hawaii government bonds, as it warns of state’s elevated debt burden


TEXT "follow HawaiiFreePress" to 40404

Register to Vote


808 Silent Majority

Aloha Pregnancy Care Center


Antonio Gramsci Reading List

A Place for Women in Waipio

Back da Blue Hawaii

Ballotpedia Hawaii

Broken Trust

Build More Hawaiian Homes Working Group

Christian Homeschoolers of Hawaii

Cliff Slater's Second Opinion

DVids Hawaii


Fix Oahu!

Frontline: The Fixers

Genetic Literacy Project

Grassroot Institute


Hawaii Aquarium Fish Report

Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society

Hawaii Catholic TV

Hawaii Christian Coalition

Hawaii Cigar Association

Hawaii ConCon Info

Hawaii Debt Clock

Hawaii Defense Foundation

Hawaii Family Forum

Hawaii Farmers and Ranchers United

Hawaii Farmer's Daughter

Hawaii Federalist Society

Hawaii Federation of Republican Women

Hawaii History Blog

Hawaii Homeschool Association

Hawaii Jihadi Trial

Hawaii Legal News

Hawaii Legal Short-Term Rental Alliance

Hawaii Matters

Hawaii's Partnership for Appropriate & Compassionate Care

Hawaii Public Charter School Network

Hawaii Rifle Association

Hawaii Shippers Council

Hawaii Smokers Alliance

Hawaii State Data Lab

Hawaii Together



Hiram Fong Papers

Homeschool Legal Defense Hawaii

Honolulu Moms for Liberty

Honolulu Navy League

Honolulu Traffic

House Minority Blog

Imua TMT

Inouye-Kwock, NYT 1992

Inside the Nature Conservancy

Inverse Condemnation

Investigative Project on Terrorism

July 4 in Hawaii

Kakaako Cares

Keep Hawaii's Heroes

Land and Power in Hawaii

Legislative Committee Analysis Tool

Lessons in Firearm Education

Lingle Years

Malulani Foundation

Managed Care Matters -- Hawaii

Malama Pregnancy Center of Maui


Military Home Educators' Network Oahu

Missile Defense Advocacy

MIS Veterans Hawaii

NAMI Hawaii


National Christian Foundation Hawaii

National Parents Org Hawaii

NFIB Hawaii News

No GMO Means No Aloha

Not Dead Yet, Hawaii

NRA-ILA Hawaii

Oahu Alternative Transport


OHA Lies

Opt Out Today


Patients Rights Council Hawaii

PEACE Hawaii

People vs Machine

Practical Policy Institute of Hawaii

Pritchett Cartoons

Pro-GMO Hawaii



Rental by Owner Awareness Assn

ReRoute the Rail

Research Institute for Hawaii USA

Rick Hamada Show

RJ Rummel

Robotics Organizing Committee

School Choice in Hawaii


Sink the Jones Act

Statehood for Guam

Talking Tax

Tax Foundation of Hawaii

The Real Hanabusa

Time Out Honolulu

Trustee Akina KWO Columns

UCC Truths

US Tax Foundation Hawaii Info

VAREP Honolulu


West Maui Taxpayers Association

What Natalie Thinks

Whole Life Hawaii